The pituitary gland, pituitary stalk (infundibulum) and sella turcica region of the skull base are common sites for many types of intracranial tumors and cysts. Pituitary adenomas are the most common growth that occur in this area and are the third most common intracranial tumor, followed by Rathke’s cleft cysts and craniopharyngiomas.
Several other tumors and benign cysts can also occur in or around the pituitary gland and related midline skull base area including clival chordomas, meningiomas, schwannomas, sphenoid sinus carcinomas, arachnoid cysts and epidermoid cysts. Inflammation of the pituitary gland and/or pituitary stalk (hypophysitis) can also occur as a result of other disease processes and some immunotherapies. Given their location, tumors in and around the pituitary gland can cause significant health problems and disability.